Assessment of Impact of Adult Trainers’ Training Programme on Watershed Management
 
Jasbir Singh Manhas
Saroj Garg
Amit Singh Charak
Lokesh Gupta    
 
« Back to Index      
 
 
 
Abstract

The study was an attempt to evaluate the impact of 14 days trainers’ training programme on “Scaling up of Water Productivity in Agriculture for Livelihood through Teaching cum Demonstration” sponsored by Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, organised by Water Management Research Centre (WMRC), Faculty of Agriculture, Chatha of Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu (SKUAST-J) w.e.f. September 1st –September 14th, 2009. It was conducted among 27 in-service candidates (6 Agriculture Extension Officers, 7 Subject Matter Specialists and 12 Junior Agriculture Assistants of State Department of Agricultural Production and 2 Agricultural Scientists of SKUAST-J) with an objective to create a trained manpower in agriculture sector. A well structured interview schedule was devised to collect the information about trainees’ background, extent of fulfillment of expectations, training effectiveness, level of confidence, relevance of course contents, utility of topics covered and opinion of trainees about training programme. Collected information was analysed with suitable statistical techniques. The study revealed that majority of the trainees were male, Junior Agriculture Assistants, up to 37 years of age, had service experience of up to 11 years and were Masters in Agriculture. Nearly half (48.16 percent) of the participants expressed that their expectations were fairly met by attending the training programme. 62.97 percent of the trainees expressed that they have developed high level of confidence after training. 55.55 per cent of the participants felt that the training programme was highly effective. Besides, majority of the topics covered in the training programme were perceived as highly relevant and most useful by the trainees. Moreover, majority of the trainees had favourable opinion towards the training programme.

Introduction

Water availability per capita in India was over 5000 cu.m. per annum in1950 and now it stands at about 2000 cu.m. and estimated to be just 1500 cu. m. by year 2035. Water availability less than 1700 cu. m. is considered as stress level on account of increasing population. The demand for food items is rising. We have no alternative but to enhance our agricultural productivity by improving and properly utilising resources at hands. In this context, water management will play a key role in conserving and utilising every drop of water to enhance crop productivity with less water. It is essential to adopt improved irrigation methods, optimum irrigation scheduling, appropriate soil and crop management practices to overcome production constraints for higher yields. Sustainability in agriculture production is now the need of the hour. This can be achieved through proper management of our land and judicious use of irrigation water resources at watershed level.

Training of extension functionaries is one of the important activities in transfer of farm technologies. It primarily addresses the capacity building issues of the extension system. Training is the process of acquiring specific skills to perform a job better (Jucious, 1963). It helps people to become qualified and proficient in doing some jobs (Dahama, 1979). Van Dorsal (1962) defined training as the process of teaching, informing or educating people so that they may become as well qualified as possible to do their job efficiently and perform in positions of greater difficulty and responsibility. In-service training, on the other hand, is offered by the organisation from time to time for the development of skills and knowledge of the incumbents (Halim and Mozahar, 1997).

Evaluation (assessment) is an in-built mechanism in extension and training system. It serves as a tool for efficient operation of training programmes by providing feedback. It assists for taking corrective measures by the course/training coordinator for effectiveness of training programmes (Kumar et al., 2005). The main purpose of assessment is to improve the quality of a training programme/project by identifying its strengths and weaknesses. Evaluation helps us to find out the impact of training programme on trainees. Evaluation provides information for decisions concerning future training programmes. This information is highly useful to fine tune the training programme and is used to communicate important facts to concerned individuals/groups or agencies. Besides, evaluation results are useful for formal reporting (Singh et al., 2007).

Methodology

Water Management Research Centre, Faculty of Agriculture, Chatha, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agriculture Sciences and Technology of Jammu (SKUAST-J) organised fourteen days “Adult Trainers’ Training Programme on Scaling up of Water Productivity in Agriculture for Livelihood through Teaching cum Demonstration” w.e.f. September 1st to September 14th, 2009 with financial assistance from Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India through Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi. The main objective of training was to create trained manpower in agriculture sector. 27 trainees who participated in the training programme were selected as respondents. The trainees who participated in the training programme were Agriculture Extension Officers (AEOs), Subject Matter Specialists (SMSs) and Junior Agriculture Assistants (JAAs) of State Department of Agricultural Production, Jammu and Agriculture Scientists of SKUAST-Jammu. Keeping in view the objective of study, a well structured interview schedule was prepared. The topics were chosen very appropriately in the light of Union Government’s commitment to improve agricultural productivity per drop of water. For data collection, trainees were interviewed personally. Thereafter, data were analysed, tabulated and interpreted in the light of objective of the study.

Top

Results and Discussion
Participants’ background

The participants were Agriculture Scientists of SKUAST-Jammu and Agriculture Extension Officers, Subject Matter Specialists and Junior Agriculture Assistants of State Department of Agricultural Production. The group was heterogeneous in respect of their age, gender, education, designation and service experience.

The data presented in Table 1 vividly corroborate that majority (92.60 per cent) of the participants were male. 51.86 per cent of the participants were up to 37 years of age whereas, 48.14 per cent were above 37 years of age. 51.85 per cent of the participants were M.Sc. (Ag.) while, 40.74 per cent of them were B.Sc. (Ag.) and only 7.41 per cent of them were Ph.D. Majority (44.45 per cent) of the trainees were Junior Agriculture Assistants whereas, 25.93 per cent were Subject Matter Specialists, 22.22 per cent were Agriculture Extension Officers and 7.40 per cent were Agriculture Scientists. 51.86 per cent of the trainees had service experience of up to 11 years whereas, 48.14 per cent had service experience of more than 11 years.

Table- 1
Participants’ background N=27

S.No. Variable Categorisation Frequency Percentage
1 Age Up to 37 14 51.86
Above 37 13 48.14
2 Gender Male 25 92.6
Female 2 7.4
3 Education B.Sc. (Ag.) 11 40.74
M.Sc. (Ag.) 14 51.85
Ph.D. 2 7.41
4 Designation Junior Agriculture Assistant 12 44.45
Agriculture Extension Officer 6 22.22
Subject Matter Specialist 7 25.93
Agriculture Scientist 2 7.4
5 Experience Up to 11 14 51.86
Above 11 13 48.14

N = No. of participants

Fulfillment of Expectations

Expectations, here, refers to the desire of the trainees to acquire new knowledge and skills about watershed management. Trainees were asked to elicit their responses on five point continuum viz. extremely met, fairly met, satisfactorily met, met to some extent and not met with score 5,4,3,2 and 1 respectively.

The data presented in Table 2 reveal that nearly half (48.16 per cent) of the respondents felt that their expectations were fairly met by attending the training programme. Exactly equal number of the respondents 7(25.92 per cent) felt that their expectations were extremely and satisfactorily met. It is interesting to note that none of the trainees felt that their expectations were met to some extent and not met by attending training. Similar findings were reported by Koshti and Vijayaragavan (2007).

Table- 2
Distribution of Respondents According to Their Extent of Fulfillment of  Expectations N=27

S.No. Extent of fulfillment ofexpectations Respondents
Frequency Percentage
1 Extremely met 7 25.92
2 Fairly met 13 48.16
3 Satisfactorily met 7 25.92
4 Met to some extent _ _
5 Not met _ _
  Total 27 100

N = No. of participants

Level of confidence

Confidence provides impetus for achieving objectives. Also, confidence is the resultant of gain in knowledge i.e. confidence comes with knowledge. The trainees were asked to state whether they developed confidence after training or not. For knowing the confidence level of trainees, their responses were recorded on four point continuum viz. high confidence, medium confidence, low confidence and no confidence with score 4,3,2, and 1 respectively.

The data incorporated in Table 3 reveal that majority of trainees (62.97 per cent) expressed that they have developed high level of confidence by attending training. However, only 37.03 per cent of them felt that they have developed medium level of confidence. It is interesting to note that none of the participants expressed low confidence and no confidence.

Top

Table- 3
Distribution of respondents according to their level of confidence N=27

S.No. Level of confidence Respondents
Frequency Percentage
1 High confidence 17 62.97
2 Medium confidence 10 37.03
3 Low confidence _ _
4 No confidence _ _
  Total 27 100


N = No. of participants

The high confidence level of the trainees was due to the fact that the training programme was well planned and organised effectively. Training had a perfect balance of teaching, practical exercises and field visits to a watershed. The field visits to a watershed provided a first hand experience to the trainees. All these factors enhanced learning of trainees and, therefore, raised their confidence level. Similar findings were reported by Koshti and Vijayaragavan (2007).

Training effectiveness

Training effectiveness refers to the impact of training programme. In other words, training effectiveness means gain in knowledge, increase in confidence level, increase in self motivation, gain in understanding and development of positive attitude and skills. For measuring training effectiveness, the trainees were asked to give their responses on four point continuum viz. highly effective, effective, less effective and not effective with score 4, 3, 2 and 1 respectively.

Table- 4
Distribution of respondents according to their level of training effectiveness N=27

S.No. Level of Training Respondents
Effectiveness Frequency Percentage
1 Highly effective 15 55.55
2 Effective 12 44.45
3 Less effective _ _
4 Not effective _ _
  Total 27 100


N = No. of participants

It is evident from Table 4 that more than half (55.55 per cent) of trainees felt that training programme was highly effective. However, only 12(44.45 per cent) respondents expressed that training was effective. Interestingly enough, none of the trainees expressed that training was less effective and not effective. This might be due to increase in their level of confidence as evident from Table 3. Similar findings were reported by Koshti and Vijayaragavan (2007).

Top

Relevance of course contents covered:

A total of 18 items pertaining to relevance of course contents of training were administered to trainees on five point continuum viz. highly relevant, quite relevant, relevant, somewhat relevant and not relevant with score 5,4,3,2, and 1 respectively. It is interesting to note that none of the respondents elicited their response on somewhat relevant and not relevant continuum. Hence, these two continuums were omitted. Data with regard to relevance of course contents covered in training as perceived by trainees have been given in Table 5.

The data incorporated in Table 5 vividly corroborate that the topics such as water requirement of agricultural crops (88.88 per cent), water requirement of horticultural crops (85.18 per cent), concept of watershed and watershed management (81.48 per cent), water harvesting techniques in a watershed programme (77.77 per cent), estimation and prediction of run-off and small watershed (74.07 per cent), importance of meteorological observatory in a watershed programme (74.07 per cent), water resources and their conservation (70.38 per cent), agricultural drought: concept, assessment and management (70.38 per cent), practical exercises during training programme (66.66 per cent) and get fuel and fodder from vegetative check dams and prevent gully erosion (62.96 per cent) were perceived as highly relevant by the trainees.

The topics such as importance of drip/sprinkler irrigation systems, integrated watershed management plan, gap analysis of food grains and field visit to a watershed were perceived as quite relevant by 62.96, 59.26, 55.55 and 51.85 per cent of trainees respectively.

Among the topics covered, alternative crop sequences in a watershed programme and crop choices for sustaining livelihood security were perceived as relevant by 48.15 and 40.74 per cent of trainees respectively.

Therefore, it could be inferred that majority of the topics (57.82 per cent) were perceived as highly relevant by trainees whereas, 27.99 per cent topics were perceived as quite relevant by them. However, a very few topics (14.19 per cent) were considered as relevant by the participants of training.

Table- 5
Distribution of Respondents According to Relevance of Course Contents N= 27

S.No

 

Particulars of relevance of course contents of training

Highly
Relevant

Quite
relevant

Relevant

 

Freq

%

Freq

  %

Freq

  %

1.

2.

3.
4.
5.
6.

7.

8.

9.

10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

18.

Concept of watershed and watershed management
Estimation and prediction of run-off and small watershed
Gap analysis of food grains
Water resources and their conservation
Crop choices for sustaining livelihood security
Get fuel and fodder from vegetative check dams and prevent gully erosion
Fodder requirement for animals in a watershed programme
Agricultural drought: Concept, Assessment and management      
Water harvesting techniques in a watershed programme
Design of a water harvesting pond
Water requirement of agricultural crops
Water requirement of horticultural crops
Integrated watershed management plan
Field visit to a watershed
Practical exercises during training programme
Importance of sprinkler/drip irrigation systems
Alternative crop sequences in a watershed programme
Importance of meteorological observatory in a watershed programme

22

20

10
19
9
17

16

19

21

15
24
23
7
10
18
6
5

20

81.48

74.07

37.03
70.38
33.33
62.96

59.26

70.38

77.77

55.56
88.88
85.18
25.93
37.04
66.66
22.22
18.52

74.07

4

3

15
4
7
7

6

5

2

9
2
2
16
14
8
17
9

6

14.81

11.11

55.55
14.81
25.93
25.93

22.22

18.51

7.41

33.33
7.41
7.41
59.26
51.85
29.63
62.96
33.33

22.22

1

4

2
4
11
3

5

3

4

3
1
2
4
3
1
4
13

1

 

3.71

14.82

7.41
14.81
40.74
11.11

18.52

11.11

14.82

11.11
3.71
7.41
14.81
11.11
3.71
14.82
48.15

3.71

 

                                              Total

281
(57.82)

 

136
(27.99)

 

69
(14.19)

 


% = Percentage; N = No. of participants; Figure in parenthesis indicate percentage

Utility of topics covered:

For knowing utility of topics covered in training, the trainees were asked to elicit their responses on three point continuum viz. most useful, useful and least useful with score 3, 2 and 1 respectively. Data with regard to utility of topics covered in training as perceived trainees have been given in Table 6.

Table - 6
Distribution of Respondents According to the Utility of Topics Covered in Training Programme

S.No

 

Particulars of usefulness of course contents of training

Most
useful

Useful

Least
useful

Freq

%

Freq

%

Freq

%

1.

2.

3.
4.
5.
6.

7.

8.

9.

10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

18.

Concept of watershed and watershed management
Estimation and prediction of run-off and small watershed
Gap analysis of food grains
Water resources and their conservation
Crop choices for sustaining livelihood security
Get fuel and fodder from vegetative check dams and prevent gully erosion
Fodder requirement for animals in a watershed programme
Agricultural Drought: Concept, Assessment and management      
Water harvesting techniques in a watershed programme
Design of a water harvesting pond
Water requirement of agricultural crops
Water requirement of horticultural crops
Integrated watershed management plan
Field visit to a watershed
Practical exercises during training programme
Importance of sprinkler/drip irrigation systems
Alternative crop sequences in a watershed programme
Importance of meteorological observatory in a watershed programme

23

  4

  7
10
5
21

9

22

18

15
26
25
19
24
20
10
5

21

85.18

14.82

25.93
37.04
18.52
77.77

33.33

81.48

66.66

55.55
96.29
92.59
70.38
88.89
74.08
37.03
18.52

77.77

  4

21

16
17
7
4

15

  5

  7

11
1
2
8
3
7
14
8

  6

14.82

77.77

59.25
62.96
25.93
14.82

55.55

18.53

25.92

40.74
3.71
7.41
29.62
11.11
25.92
51.85
29.62

22.23

 -

  2

  4
-
15
2

 3

-

2

1
-
-
-
-
-
3
14

-

-

 7.41

14.82
-
55.55
7.41

11.12

-

7.41

3.71
-
-
-
-
-
11.12
51.86

-

 

Total

284
(58.44)

 

156
(32.09)

 

46
(9.47)

 

The data presented in Table 6 divulge that out of 18 topics covered in training programme, majority i.e. 10 topics were perceived as most useful by the trainees. These were water requirement of agricultural crops (96.29 per cent), water requirement of horticultural crops (92.59 per cent), field visit to a watershed (88.89 per cent), concept of watershed and watershed management (85.18 per cent), agricultural drought: concept, assessment and management (81.48 per cent), get fuel and fodder from vegetative check dams and prevent gully erosion (77.77 per cent), importance of meteorological observatory in a watershed programme (77.77 per cent), practical exercises during training programme (74.08 per cent), integrated watershed management plan (70.38 per cent) and water harvesting techniques in a watershed programme (66.66 per cent)

The topics such as estimation and prediction of run-off and small watershed, water resources and their conservation, gap analysis of food grains, fodder requirement for animals in a watershed programme and importance of drip/ sprinkler irrigations systems were perceived as useful by 77.77, 62.96, 59.25, 55.55 and 51.85 per cent of trainees respectively. Interestingly enough, only two topics viz. crop choices for sustaining livelihood security and alternative crop sequences in a watershed programme and were considered as least useful by 55.55 and 51.86 per cent of trainees respectively.

It could, therefore, be inferred that majority of topics (58.44 per cent) were perceived as most useful by the trainees whereas, 32.09 per cent topics were considered as useful by them. However, only a negligible percentage of trainees (9.47 per cent) perceived topics as least useful.

Top

Opinion of trainees on different aspects of training

A perusal of data given in Table 7 vividly corroborate that all the participants (100 per cent) agreed that their knowledge has increased by participation in training. All the participants agreed that attending training was a good learning experience for them and trainers had rich knowledge of subject matter. They expressed that there was an excellent learning environment during training and they would like to participate in another training programme organised in a similar way. Besides, they were fully satisfied by tea and sitting arrangements. 96.30 per cent of trainees agreed that their attitude towards their job has changed by attending training and the time was fully and best utilised during the training programme. 92.60 per cent of trainees opined that they have developed new skills by attending training and were satisfied by lunch. However, 81.48 per cent of respondents agreed that training had perfect balance between theory and practical and their job proficiency has improved by attending training. 85.19 per cent and 70.38 per cent of trainees were, however, undecided that various A.V. aids used by the trainers have enhanced learning and discussion after every training session was interesting and fruitful. Interestingly enough, nearly three-fourth (70.37 per cent) of respondents were dissatisfied by the duration of the training programme. Similar findings were reported by Kumar et al. (2005).

Table-7
Opinion of Trainees on Different Aspects of Training

S.No.

Opinion

Agree

%

Undecided

%

Disagree

%

 

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.
7.

 

8.

9.

10.
11.

12.
13.
14.

15.

16.

 

 

 

Knowledge has increased by
participation in training
Training has changed my attitude towards my job
Development of new skills by attending training
Training has improved my job proficiency
Various A.V. aids used by the trainers has enhanced learning
Full and best utilisation of time
Discussion after every training session was interesting and highly fruitful
Perfect balance between theory and practical
Duration of training was satisfactory
Excellent learning environment
Trainers had rich knowledge of subject matter
Tea was satisfactory
Lunch was satisfactory
Sitting arrangement was satisfactory
It was a good learning experience
I would like to participate in another training organised in a similar way

 

27

26

25

22

 3

26
6

 

22

 2

27
27

27
25
27

27

27

 

100.00

96.30

92.60

81.48

11.11

96.30
22.22

 

81.48

  7.41

100.00
100.00

100.00
92.60
100.00

100.00

100.00

 

 -

 1

 1

 3

23

 1
19

 

 5

6

-
-

-
2
-

-

-

 

-

 3.70

 3.70

11.11

85.19

 3.70
70.38

 

18.52

22.22

-
-

-
7.40
-

-

-

 

 

-

-

1

 2

 1

-
2

 

-

19

-
-

-
-
-

-

-

 

-

-

3.70

 7.41

 3.70

-
7.40

 

-

70.37

-
-

-
-
-

-

-

 

 

Total

346
(80.09)

 

61
(14.12)

 

25
(5.79)

 



% = Percentage; N= No. of participants; Figures in parenthesis indicate percentage

Conclusion

The participants expressed that the training programme on ‘Scaling up of Water Productivity in Agriculture for Livelihood through Teaching cum Demonstration’ was a good learning experience. 48.16 per cent of the trainees felt that their expectations were fairly met by attending the training programme. After training, 62.97 per cent of trainees expressed that they have developed high level of confidence. Majority (55.55 per cent) of the participants perceived that training programme was highly effective. Majority of the topics covered in the training programme were perceived as highly relevant and most useful by the trainees. The practical exercises and field visits to watershed helped the participants not only to improve their knowledge but also sharpen their practical skills on various aspects of watershed and watershed management. The training has achieved a very high level of benefits in terms of human resource development and improving linkages between SKUAST-J and State Department of Agricultural Production. In general, the trainees have revealed that the training programme was well planned with expert faculty members and organised effectively; satisfying the need and requirements of the participants.

Since the training programme has immensely helped in improving the knowledge and sharpens the practical skills of the trainees, it is recommended that the trainees trained under the present project should apply the knowledge gained and skills developed in their actual field conditions. This would definitely help the farming community in achieving the livelihood security.

Top

References


  1. Dahama, O.P. (1979). Extension and Rural Welfare. New Delhi: Ram Prasad and sons.
  2. Halim, A. and Mozahar, A. (1997). ‘Training and Professional Development’ in B.E. Swanson, R.P.Bentz and A.J. Sofranko (1997) Improving Agricultural Extension-  a reference manual. Rome: FAO.
  3. Jucious, M.J. (1963). Personal Management (5th edition). Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin.
  4. Koshti, N.R. and Vijayaragavan, K. (2007). Evaluation of Training Programme on Mushroom Cultivation. Indian Journal of Extension Education, 43 (1&2): 31-36.
  5. Kumar, N., Rautaray, S.K., Gupta, M. and Singh, A.K. (2005). Impact of Summer School on Mechanisation of Rice Production System. Indian Journal of Extension Education, 41 (1&2): 54-57.
  6. Singh, B., Murari, S., Vijayaragavan, K., Padaria, R.N. and Wason, M. (2007). Impact of Evaluation Building Programme of IARI. Indian Journal of Extension Education, 43 (1&2): 1-5.
  7. Van Dorsal, W.R. (1962). The Successful Supervisor. New York: Harper and Row.